Aphasia is a communication disorder that affects a person’s ability to speak, read, write, and/or understand as the result of a stroke or brain damage. A person with non-fluent aphasia has “choppy” speech and difficulty finding the words, but has strong comprehension. A person with fluent aphasia, on the other hand, has poor comprehension and speech is more fluid. Although speech is fluid in fluent aphasia, the words used may be incorrect or made up.

For more information about aphasia, check out the following resources:

To find out how we can help with aphasia, contact us today at 201-658-4400 or ccaruso@libertyspeechassociates.com

Apraxia is a motor speech disorder that makes it difficult for a person to coordinate the movements of the mouth for speech.  With apraxia, the person knows what s/he wants to say, but cannot get his/her mouth to move appropriately to formulate different sounds, words or sentences.  Characteristics of apraxia include: struggle when attempting to move the mouth to make different sounds (groping), inconsistent error patterns, poor speech intelligibility, unusual prosody, and difficulty making vowel sounds.  Apraxia can affect both children and adults.

In children, it is referred to as Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS).  You may also hear this disorder referred to as Developmental Apraxia of SpeechDevelopmental Verbal Apraxia, or Apraxia.   CAS is caused by a brain injury or genetic disorders or syndromes.  Diagnosis in children can be very tricky, which, unfortunately, can lead to misdiagnoses.  Ideally, a child should be talking to make an accurate diagnosis.  It is often suggested that diagnosis not be made until a child is 3 years old and s/he has a solid vocabulary.

In adults, it is referred to as Apraxia of Speech in Adults.  You may also hear this disorder referred to as Acquired Apraxia of SpeechVerbal Apraxia, or Dyspraxia.  Apraxia in adults is caused by brain damage.

For more information on apraxia, check out the following resources:

Apraxia of Speech in Adults

Childhood Apraxia of Speech

Childhood Apraxia of Speech Association of North America

The Apraxia Connection

To find out how we can help with apraxia, contact us today at 201-658-4400 or ccaruso@libertyspeechassociates.com.

Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder resulting from weak and impaired muscles impacting speech production.  A person with this disorder will present with “slushy” or “slurred” speech.  Speech intelligibility is typically reduced.  Dysarthria also leads to voice changes, such as hoarseness.  There are several types of dysarthria including spastic, hyperkinetic, hypokinetic, ataxic, flaccid, and mixed, which determine how a person presents with the disorder.  Both children and adults can have dysarthria.  Possible causes include: Parkinson’s Disease, ALS, Huntington’s Disease, Cerebral Palsy, Down Syndrome, stroke, traumatic brain injury.

For more information on dysarthria, check out the following resources:


Dysarthria: Characteristics, Prognosis, Remediation

To find out how we can help with dysarthria, contact us today at 201-658-4400 or ccaruso@libertyspeechassociates.com.

Stuttering, commonly referred to as a “fluency disorder” or “dysfluency,” is a communication disorder that affects a person’s speech fluency.  It can lead to repetition of sounds, parts of words, whole words, phrases, or sentences, prolongation of sounds (e.g., ssssssssnake), blocks (limited or no sound when the mouth is positioned to speak; seems as if the word is “stuck”), and/or interjections (e.g., um, uh).

Children under the age of 6 can experience “developmental disfluencies” meaning that they are stuttering but it is appropriate at that point in their development.  A child with developmental disfluency does not demonstrate struggle or frustration when speaking and uses repetitions (less than 10% of the time); no other stuttering characteristics are present in this type of disfluency.  Risk factors for long-term stuttering is sex (males are more likely than females), family history, and type and severity of stuttering characteristics. 

For more information about stuttering, check out the following resources:

National Stuttering Foundation


The Stuttering Foundation

To find out how we can help with stuttering, contact us today at 201-658-4400 or ccaruso@libertyspeechassociates.com.

Cognitive-Linguistic Disorders also referred to as Cognitive-Communication Disorders are communication impairments that impact an individual’s cognition (e.g., attention, memory, problem solving) and language skills (e.g., comprehension and communication).  These disorders are typically the result of traumatic brain injuries, but can also occur due to neurological conditions or stroke.

For more information, visit:
Traumatic Brain Injury
What is a Cognitive-Communication Disorder?

Language Disorders are communication impairments that impact a person’s ability to understand and communicate with others.  They may be referred to as spoken language disorderspreschool language disordersspecific language impairmentreceptive language disorderexpressive language disorder, or pragmatic language disorder.  A child with a language disorder may have trouble with various aspects of communication, including, but not limited to, answering questions, following directions, learning new vocabulary, using spoken words, putting words together in grammatically-correct phrases or sentences, using appropriate social behaviors (e.g., turn taking), and engaging in conversation.  “Receptive” language refers to a person’s comprehension.  “Expressive” language refers to a person’s expression, which may be in written, verbal, visual, or gestural form.  “Pragmatic” language refers to a person’s social communication skills.

For more information on language disorders, check out the following resources:

Preschool Language Disorders

Specific Language Impairment

Spoken Language Disorders

To find out how we can help with language disorders, contact us today at 201-658-4400 or ccaruso@libertyspeechassociates.com

Speech Sound Disorders are communication impairments that impact a person’s ability to pronounce sounds and words.  They may be referred to as articulation or phonological disorders.  It is normal for children to make mistakes with pronunciation as they are learning to speak; however, as they get older, they should be making less mistakes and their speech should sound more like an adult.  As a general rule, children should be understood approximately 50% of the time at age 2, 75% of the time at age 3, and 100% of the time at age 4.  Even though a child should be 100% understood at age 4, that is not to say that s/he may not still make a few mistakes on pronunciation.

For more information on speech sound disorders, check out the following resources:

Speech and Articulation Development Chart

Speech Sound Disorders

To find out how we can help with speech sound disorders, contact us today at 201-658-4400 or ccaruso@libertyspeechassociates.com.

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