Aphasia is a communication disorder that affects a person’s ability to speak, read, write, and/or understand as the result of a stroke or brain damage. A person with non-fluent aphasia has “choppy” speech and difficulty finding the words, but has strong comprehension. A person with fluent aphasia, on the other hand, has poor comprehension and speech is more fluid. Although speech is fluid in fluent aphasia, the words used may be incorrect or made up.
For more information about aphasia, check out the following resources:
- Aphasia Alliance
- Aphasia Corner
- Aphasia Hope Foundation
- Aphasia Now
- National Aphasia Association
To find out how we can help with aphasia, contact us today at 201-658-4400 or firstname.lastname@example.org
Apraxia is a motor speech disorder that makes it difficult for a person to coordinate the movements of the mouth for speech. With apraxia, the person knows what s/he wants to say, but cannot get his/her mouth to move appropriately to formulate different sounds, words or sentences. Characteristics of apraxia include: struggle when attempting to move the mouth to make different sounds (groping), inconsistent error patterns, poor speech intelligibility, unusual prosody, and difficulty making vowel sounds. Apraxia can affect both children and adults.
In children, it is referred to as Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS). You may also hear this disorder referred to as Developmental Apraxia of Speech, Developmental Verbal Apraxia, or Apraxia. CAS is caused by a brain injury or genetic disorders or syndromes. Diagnosis in children can be very tricky, which, unfortunately, can lead to misdiagnoses. Ideally, a child should be talking to make an accurate diagnosis. It is often suggested that diagnosis not be made until a child is 3 years old and s/he has a solid vocabulary.
In adults, it is referred to as Apraxia of Speech in Adults. You may also hear this disorder referred to as Acquired Apraxia of Speech, Verbal Apraxia, or Dyspraxia. Apraxia in adults is caused by brain damage.
For more information on apraxia, check out the following resources:
To find out how we can help with apraxia, contact us today at 201-658-4400 or email@example.com.
Stuttering, commonly referred to as a “fluency disorder” or “dysfluency,” is a communication disorder that affects a person’s speech fluency. It can lead to repetition of sounds, parts of words, whole words, phrases, or sentences, prolongation of sounds (e.g., ssssssssnake), blocks (limited or no sound when the mouth is positioned to speak; seems as if the word is “stuck”), and/or interjections (e.g., um, uh).
Children under the age of 6 can experience “developmental disfluencies” meaning that they are stuttering but it is appropriate at that point in their development. A child with developmental disfluency does not demonstrate struggle or frustration when speaking and uses repetitions (less than 10% of the time); no other stuttering characteristics are present in this type of disfluency. Risk factors for long-term stuttering is sex (males are more likely than females), family history, and type and severity of stuttering characteristics.
For more information about stuttering, check out the following resources:
To find out how we can help with stuttering, contact us today at 201-658-4400 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Cognitive-Linguistic Disorders also referred to as Cognitive-Communication Disorders are communication impairments that impact an individual’s cognition (e.g., attention, memory, problem solving) and language skills (e.g., comprehension and communication). These disorders are typically the result of traumatic brain injuries, but can also occur due to neurological conditions or stroke.
Speech Sound Disorders are communication impairments that impact a person’s ability to pronounce sounds and words. They may be referred to as articulation or phonological disorders. It is normal for children to make mistakes with pronunciation as they are learning to speak; however, as they get older, they should be making less mistakes and their speech should sound more like an adult. As a general rule, children should be understood approximately 50% of the time at age 2, 75% of the time at age 3, and 100% of the time at age 4. Even though a child should be 100% understood at age 4, that is not to say that s/he may not still make a few mistakes on pronunciation.
For more information on speech sound disorders, check out the following resources:
To find out how we can help with speech sound disorders, contact us today at 201-658-4400 or email@example.com.