Aphasia is a communication disorder. It affects a person’s ability to speak, read, write, and/or understand. Typically, a stroke or brain injury cause aphasia. There are different categories and symptoms of aphasia.  For example, a person with non-fluent aphasia has “choppy” speech. Additionally s/he usually has difficulty recalling words, but has strong comprehension. On the other hand, a person with fluent aphasia has poor comprehension and speech is more fluid. Although speech is fluid in fluent aphasia, the words used may be incorrect or made up.

For more information about aphasia, check out the following resources:

To find out how we can help with aphasia, contact us today at 201-658-4400 or ccaruso@libertyspeechassociates.com

Apraxia is a motor speech disorder. It makes it difficult for a person to coordinate the movements of the mouth for speech.  With apraxia, a person knows what s/he wants to say. However, s/he cannot get his/her mouth to move appropriately to formulate different sounds, words or sentences.  Characteristics of apraxia include: struggle when attempting to move the mouth to make different sounds (groping), inconsistent error patterns, poor speech intelligibility, unusual prosody, and difficulty making vowel sounds.  Apraxia can affect both children and adults.

In children, it is referred to as Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS).  In addition, other common names include: Developmental Apraxia of SpeechDevelopmental Verbal Apraxia, or Apraxia.   CAS is caused by a brain injury or genetic disorders or syndromes.  Unfortunately, diagnosis in children can be very tricky, which can lead to misdiagnoses.  Ideally, a child should be talking to make an accurate diagnosis. In fact, ASHA suggests that a definitive diagnosis should not be made until a child is 3 years old and s/he has a solid vocabulary (refer to “Diagnosing CAS”).

In adults, it is referred to as Apraxia of Speech in Adults.  Additionally, other names include: Acquired Apraxia of SpeechVerbal Apraxia, or Dyspraxia. Brain damage often causes apraxia of speech in adults.

For more information on apraxia, check out the following resources:

Apraxia of Speech in Adults

Childhood Apraxia of Speech

Childhood Apraxia of Speech Association of North America

The Apraxia Connection

To find out how we can help with apraxia, contact us today at 201-658-4400 or ccaruso@libertyspeechassociates.com.

Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder. It results from weak and impaired muscles impacting speech production.  Typically, a person with dysarthria has “slushy” or “slurred” speech.  Additionally, his/her speech intelligibility is typically reduced.  Dysarthria also leads to voice changes, such as hoarseness.  There are several types of dysarthria including spastic, hyperkinetic, hypokinetic, ataxic, flaccid, and mixed. The type of dysarthria determines how a person presents with the disorder.  Both children and adults can have dysarthria.  Possible causes include: Parkinson’s Disease, ALS, Huntington’s Disease, Cerebral Palsy, Down Syndrome, stroke, traumatic brain injury.

For more information on dysarthria, check out the following resources:


Dysarthria: Characteristics, Prognosis, Remediation

To find out how we can help with dysarthria, contact us today at 201-658-4400 or ccaruso@libertyspeechassociates.com.

Stuttering (AKA “fluency disorder” or “dysfluency”) is a communication disorder. It affects a person’s speech fluency.  Stuttering can lead to repetitions of sounds, parts of words, whole words, phrases, or sentences. Additionally, prolongation of sounds, blocks, and/or interjections can be present. For more information on the types of stuttering, watch this short video.

Children under the age of 6 can experience “developmental disfluencies.” This means that their stuttering may be appropriate at that point in their development.  A child with developmental disfluency does not demonstrate struggle or frustration when speaking. Furthermore, s/he typically uses repetitions instead of other stuttering symptoms. Additionally, repetitions occur less than 10% of the time.  Males are more likely than females to have long-term stuttering. Other risk factors include family history and type/severity of symptoms. 

For more information about stuttering, check out the following resources:

National Stuttering Foundation


The Stuttering Foundation

To find out how we can help with stuttering, contact us today at 201-658-4400 or ccaruso@libertyspeechassociates.com.

Cognitive-Linguistic Disorders (AKA Cognitive-Communication Disorders) are communication impairments that impact an individual’s cognition and language skills. Cognition includes, but is not limited to, attention, memory, and problem solving. Language skills refer to comprehension and expressive communication.  These disorders are typically the result of traumatic brain injuries. However, they may also occur due to neurological conditions or stroke.

For more information, visit:
Traumatic Brain Injury
What is a Cognitive-Communication Disorder?

Language Disorders impact a person’s ability to understand and communicate with others.  Aphasia is a language disorder that typically affects adults. There are several names to describe language disorders in children: spoken language disorderspreschool language disordersspecific language impairmentreceptive/expressive language disorder, or pragmatic language disorder. However, as of late, “developmental language disorder” is the go-to term for language disorders in children.

A child with a language disorder may have trouble with various aspects of communication. For example, s/he may have difficulty answering questions, following directions, and learning new vocabulary.  In addition, s/he may find it hard to use spoken words, put words together or use appropriate social behaviors (e.g., turn taking).

For more information on language disorders, check out the following resources:

Developmental Language Disorder

Preschool Language Disorders

Specific Language Impairment

Spoken Language Disorders

To find out how we can help with language disorders, contact us today at 201-658-4400 or ccaruso@libertyspeechassociates.com

Speech Sound Disorders (AKA articulation and phonological disorders) are communication impairments that affect a person’s pronunciation. Although it is normal for children to make mistakes with pronunciation as they are learning to speak, they should be making less mistakes as they get older.  As a general rule, children should be understood approximately 50% of the time at age 2. At age 3, children should be understood approximately 75% of the time.  By age 4, children should be understood 100% of the time. However, even at age 4, children may still make mistakes on pronunciation.

For more information on speech sound disorders, check out the following resources:

Speech Sound Disorders

To find out how we can help with speech sound disorders, contact us today at 201-658-4400 or ccaruso@libertyspeechassociates.com.

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